A Survey of Digital Stippling



In this article we survey techniques for the digital simulation of hand-made stippling—one of the core techniques developed within non-photorealistic/expressive rendering. Over the years, a plethora of automatic or semi-automatic stippling algorithms have been proposed. As part of this expanding field of research, techniques have been developed that not only push the boundaries of traditional stippling but that also relate to other processes or techniques. Our general goal in this survey is thus to increase our understanding of both hand-made and computer-assisted stippling. For this purpose we not only provide an overview of the work on digital stippling but also examine its relationship to traditional stippling and to related fields such as halftoning. Finally, we propose several directions of future work in the field.

Paper download:  (55.4 MB)



You can download a demo of StippleShop (for Windows–x64 and Linux–64bit; 78.4MB) and try it out for yourself. The code is also available on GitHub.

Additional Material:


See our other work on stippling:


Domingo Martín, Germán Arroyo, Alejandro Rodríguez, and Tobias Isenberg (2017) A Survey of Digital Stippling. Computers & Graphics, 67:24–44, October 2017.

BibTeX entry:

@ARTICLE{Martin:2017:SDS, author = {Domingo Mart{\'i}n and Germ{\'a}n Arroyo and Alejandro Rodr{\'i}guez and Tobias Isenberg}, title = {A Survey of Digital Stippling}, journal = {Computers \& Graphics}, year = {2017}, volume = {67}, month = oct, pages = {24--44}, doi = {10.1016/j.cag.2017.05.001}, doi_url = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cag.2017.05.001}, oa_hal_url = {https://hal.science/hal-01528484}, github_url = {https://github.com/dmperandres/StippleShop}, url = {https://tobias.isenberg.cc/p/Martin2017SDS}, pdf = {https://tobias.isenberg.cc/personal/papers/Martin_2017_SDS.pdf}, }

This work was done at and in collaboration with the Computer Graphics Group at the University of Granada, Spain.