Illustrative Rendering, Visualization, and Human-Computer Interaction > AVIZ > Inria Saclay / Université Paris Saclay > Inria

Stippling by Example

Description:

 

In this work, we focus on stippling as an artistic style and discuss our technique for capturing and reproducing stipple features unique to an individual artist. We employ a texture synthesis algorithm based on the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) of a texture field. This algorithm uses a texture similarity metric to generate stipple textures that are perceptually similar to input samples, allowing us to better capture and reproduce stipple distributions. First, we extract example stipple textures representing various tones in order to create an approximate tone map used by the artist. Second, we extract the stipple marks and distributions from the extracted example textures, generating both a lookup table of stipple marks and a texture representing the stipple distribution. Third, we use the distribution of stipples to synthesize similar distributions with slight variations using a numerical measure of the error between the synthesized texture and the example texture as the basis for replication. Finally, we apply the synthesized stipple distribution to a 2D grayscale image and place stipple marks onto the distribution, thereby creating a stippled image that is statistically similar to images created by the example artist.

Paper download:  (20.1 MB)

Demo:

You can download a demo of the stippling by example tool (for Win32, 18.9MB) and try it out for yourself.

Pictures:

Cross-Reference:

This technique is based on a statistical analysis of hand-made stippling, see the page on this paper as well.

Main Reference:

SungYe Kim, Ross Maciejewski, Tobias Isenberg, William M. Andrews, Wei Chen, Mario Costa Sousa, and David S. Ebert (2009) Stippling By Example. In Tobias Isenberg, Craig Kaplan, and Stephen N. Spencer, eds., Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering (NPAR, August 1–2, New Orleans, USA). New York. ACM, pages 41–50, 2009.   doi
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BibTeX entry:


@INPROCEEDINGS{Kim:2009:SBE, author = {SungYe Kim and Ross Maciejewski and Tobias Isenberg and William M. Andrews and Wei Chen and Mario Costa Sousa and David S. Ebert}, title = {Stippling By Example}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering (NPAR, August 1--2, New Orleans, USA)}, editor = {Tobias Isenberg and Craig Kaplan and Stephen N. Spencer}, year = {2009}, pages = {41--50}, publisher = {ACM}, address = {New York}, doi = {10.1145/1572614.1572622}, doi_url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/1572614.1572622}, url = {https://tobias.isenberg.cc/VideosAndDemos/Kim2009SBE}, pdf = {https://tobias.isenberg.cc/personal/papers/Kim_2009_SBE.pdf}, }

Other References:

Ross Maciejewski, Tobias Isenberg, William M. Andrews, David S. Ebert, Mario Costa Sousa, and Wei Chen (2008) Measuring Stipple Aesthetics in Hand-Drawn and Computer-Generated Images. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 28(2):62–74, March/April 2008.   doi
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url
bibtex
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BibTeX entry:


@ARTICLE{Maciejewski:2008:MSA, author = {Ross Maciejewski and Tobias Isenberg and William M. Andrews and David S. Ebert and Mario Costa Sousa and Wei Chen}, title = {Measuring Stipple Aesthetics in Hand-Drawn and Computer-Generated Images}, journal = {IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications}, year = {2008}, volume = {28}, number = {2}, month = mar # {/} # apr, pages = {62--74}, doi = {10.1109/MCG.2008.35}, doi_url = {https://doi.org/10.1109/MCG.2008.35}, url = {https://tobias.isenberg.cc/VideosAndDemos/Maciejewski2008MSA}, pdf = {https://tobias.isenberg.cc/personal/papers/Maciejewski_2008_MSA.pdf}, }
Ross Maciejewski, Tobias Isenberg, William M. Andrews, David S. Ebert, and Mario Costa Sousa (2007) Aesthetics of Hand-Drawn vs. Computer-Generated Stippling. In Douglas W. Cunningham, Gary Meyer, László Neumann, Alan Dunning, and Raquel Paricio, eds., Proceedings of Computational Aesthetics in Graphics, Visualization, and Imaging (CAe, June 20–22, Banff, Alberta, Canada). Goslar, Germany. Eurographics Association, pages 53–56, 2007. Also see the article in IEEE Computers Graphics and Applications.   doi
pdf
url
bibtex
×

BibTeX entry:


@INPROCEEDINGS{Maciejewski:2007:AHD, author = {Ross Maciejewski and Tobias Isenberg and William M. Andrews and David S. Ebert and Mario Costa Sousa}, title = {Aesthetics of Hand-Drawn vs.\ Computer-Generated Stippling}, booktitle = {Proceedings of Computational Aesthetics in Graphics, Visualization, and Imaging (CAe, June 20--22, Banff, Alberta, Canada)}, series = {Eurographics Workshop Series}, editor = {Douglas W. Cunningham and Gary Meyer and L{\'a}szl{\'o} Neumann and Alan Dunning and Raquel Paricio}, year = {2007}, pages = {53--56}, publisher = {Eurographics Association}, address = {Goslar, Germany}, doi = {10.2312/COMPAESTH/COMPAESTH07/053-056}, doi_url = {https://doi.org/10.2312/COMPAESTH/COMPAESTH07/053-056}, url = {https://tobias.isenberg.cc/VideosAndDemos/Maciejewski2008MSA}, pdf = {https://tobias.isenberg.cc/personal/papers/Maciejewski_2007_AHD.pdf}, }

This work was done at and in collaboration with the Purdue University Rendering and Perceptualization Lab (PURPL) at Purdue University, USA.

See also the http://vrinside.net/inside/publications/npar2009/stipplingbyexample.html project page and http://pixel.ecn.purdue.edu:8080/~rmacieje/Stipple/ another page at Purdue University.