Non-Photorealistic Rendering in Context: An Observational Study

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Tobias Isenberg, Petra Neumann, Sheelagh Carpendale, Mario Costa Sousa, and Joaquim A. Jorge

In Doug DeCarlo and Lee Markosian, editors, Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering (NPAR 2006, June 5–7, 2006, Annecy, France), pages 115–126, New York, 2006. ACM Press.

Pen-and-ink line drawing techniques are frequently used to depict form, tone, and texture in artistic, technical, and scientific illustration. In non-photorealistic rendering (NPR), considerable progress has been made towards reproducing traditional pen-and-ink techniques for rendering 3D objects. However, formal evaluation and validation of these NPR images remain an important open research problem. In this paper we present an observational study with three groups of users to examine their understanding and assessment of hand-drawn pen-and-ink illustrations of objects in comparison with NPR renditions of the same 3D objects. The results show that people perceive differences between those two types of illustration but that those that look computer-generated are still highly valued as scientific illustrations.

DOI: 10.1145/1124728.1124747

Paper download: PDF, 12 pages, 35.64 MB

Slides download: PDF, 21 pages, 30.59 MB


  author = 	 {Tobias Isenberg and Petra Neumann and Sheelagh Carpendale
                  and Mario Costa Sousa and Joaquim A. Jorge},
  title = 	 {{N}on-{P}hotorealistic {R}endering in {C}ontext:
                  {A}n {O}bservational {S}tudy},
  booktitle = 	 {Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on
                  Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering
                  (NPAR 2006, June 5--7, 2006, Annecy, France)},
  editor = 	 {Doug DeCarlo and Lee Markosian},
  year = 	 {2006},
  publisher =    {ACM Press},
  address = 	 {New York},
  pages = 	 {115--126},
  doi = 	 {},
  url = 	 {}
Image set: Please contact us if you are interested in using the images for a similar project.

Additional information: See talk at Dagstuhl Seminar 06221 on Computational Aesthetics in Graphics, Visualization and Imaging (Slides, 32 pages, 26.77 MB).

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